Automatic Speaker Recognition or Voice Recognition is a biometric technology that uses individualís voice for human identification and verification.
It is also commonly referred to as speaker verification or speaker authentication. Speaker Recognition is a different technology than "Speech Recognition",
which recognizes words as they are articulated, which is not a biometric. Speaker recognition process relies on individualís vocal tact and speaking style.
Speech samples are waveforms with time on the horizontal axis, and loudness on the vertical axis. The speaker recognition system analyzes the frequency content of the speech and compares characteristics such as quality, duration, intensity dynamics, and pitch of the voice signal.
Speaker verification is a 1:1 matching comparison where one speaker's voice is matched to one template (also called a "voice print" or "voice model")
whereas speaker identification is a 1:N matching where the voice is compared against N templates. From a security perspective, speaker identification
is different from speaker verification. There are two forms of speaker recognition: text-dependant (constrained mode) and text-independant (unconstrained mode)
Speaker recognition systems. In a system using text-dependant speech, individuals present either a fixed (password) or prompted (a number sequence)
phrase that is programmed into the system. When the speakerís voice matches with the stored voice template, the biometric system gives him/her the access.
The text-indepandant speaker recognition system has no advance knowledge of the presenterís phrasing, and it uses intelligence of voice loudness/pitch and speaking style.
Applications of Speaker Recognition Biometrics are remote authentication by voice recognition using speech samples, telephone banking, E-commerce,
internet-banking biometric security, voice operated vehicle/home door access by speaker recognition biometric security, forensic speaker identification/verification
system and automatic Speaker Recognition (ASR) system for corporate biometric time & attendance system.